Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2018, Page: 80-90
Morphometric Analysis of Kito and Awetu Sub Basins Jimma, Ethiopia
Fayera Gudu Tufa, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Tolera Abdissa Feyissa, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Received: Sep. 10, 2018;       Accepted: Oct. 22, 2018;       Published: Nov. 14, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20180403.14      View  352      Downloads  37
Morphometric analysis is very important to evaluate watershed characteristics. Watershed characteristics are essential in watershed management, site selection for water resource projects, groundwater evaluation and proposing flood control measures. The present study aimed the morphometric analysis of Kito and Awetu sub-basins which drain into Kito and Awetu Rivers. Both rivers merge into a single river in Jimma town which is subjected to flood and sediment generated from both sub-basins. Topographic map of scale 1:50,000 was obtained from Ethiopian National Mapping Agency and satellite image of digital elevation model of fine resolution (12.5m x12.5m) was downloaded and used for morphometric analysis. GIS and remote sensing technique have been employed to generate and quantify morphometric parameters. Twenty-six parameters under linear aspects, areal aspects, and relief aspects were evaluated to characterize both Kito and Awetu sub-basins. Kito and Awetu Sub basins have both 5th order stream and the 1st order encompasses 78% and 77% of total stream number respectively which indicates the presence of flashy flood. The drainage area, basin perimeter, stream length and weighted mean bifurcation is 113.21km2, 82.65km, 270.33km, and 4.51 respectively for Kito sub-basin and 77.17km2, 73.58km, 192.45km, and 4.45 respectively for Awetu sub-basin. The values indicate that both sub-basins are characterized by mountainous, steep slope and mostly homogeneous geologic materials. The elongation ratio of Kito and Awetu sub-basins are 0.62 and 0.64 respectively. Kito and Awetu sub-basins are both elongated and the rivers have slow hydrograph for a long time. Relatively, Awetu sub-basin is more elongated than Kito sub-basin. The study reveals that both sub-basins are susceptible to surface runoff and soil erosion but the rivers are long and easy to manage flood occurrence.
Awetu Sub Basin, GIS, Kito Sub Basin, Morphometric Analysis, Remote Sensing
To cite this article
Fayera Gudu Tufa, Tolera Abdissa Feyissa, Morphometric Analysis of Kito and Awetu Sub Basins Jimma, Ethiopia, American Journal of Water Science and Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2018, pp. 80-90. doi: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20180403.14
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rao, N. K., Latha, S. P., Kumar, A. P. and Krishna, H. M., Morphometric analysis of Gostani river basin in Andhra Pradesh State, India using spatial information technology. International journal of geomatics and geosciences, 2010. 1(2): p. 179.
Pingale, S. M., Chandra, H., Sharma, H. and Mishra, S. S., Morphometric analysis of Maun watershed in Tehri-Garhwal district of Uttarakhand using GIS. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2012. 3(2): p. 373-387.
Rai, P. K., Mohan, K., Mishra, S., Ahmad, A. and Mishra, V. N., A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India. Applied Water Science, 2014. 7(1): p. 217-232.
Strahler, A. N., Part II. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. Handbook of Applied Hydrology: McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964: p. 4-39.
Aravinda, P. and H. Balakrishna, Morphometric analysis of vrishabhavathi watershed using remote sensing and GIS. Int. J. Res. Eng. Tech, 2013. 2(8): p. 514-522.
Panda, S. P., A Quantitative Analysis of Baitarani Drainage Basin (Odisha) Using Geographical Information System. Vistas in Geological Research (ISBN: 81-900907-0-4), Special Publication in Geology (14), 2016: p. 165-176.
Rahaman, S. A., Ajeez, S. A., Aruchamy, S. & Jegankumar, R., Prioritization of Sub Watershed Based on Morphometric Characteristics Using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process and Geographical Information System: A Study of Kallar Watershed, Tamil Nadu. Aquatic Procedia, 2015. 4: p. 1322-1330.
YangchanJ, J. A., A. Tiwari, and A. Sood, Morphometric Analysis of Drainage Basin through GIS: A Case study of Sukhna Lake Watershed in Lower Shiwalik. India, IIJSER, 2015. 6(2).
Dubey, S. K., D. Sharma, and N. Mundetia, Morphometric Analysis of the Banas River Basin Using the Geographical Information System, Rajasthan, India. Hydrology ISSN, 2015: p. 2330-7609.
Tribhuvan, P. and M. Sonar, Morphometric analysis of a Phulambri river drainage basin (Gp8 Watershed), Aurangabad district (Maharashtra) using geographical information system. International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS, 2016: p. pp. 1813-1828.
Farhan, Y. and O. Anaba, A remote sensing and GIS approach for prioritization of Wadi Shueib mini-watersheds (Central Jordan) based on morphometric and soil erosion susceptibility analysis. Journal of Geographic Information System, 2016. 8(01): p. 1.
Faniran, A., The index of drainage intensity-A provisional new drainage factor. Australian Journal of Science, 1968. 31: p. 328-330.
Horton, R. E., Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins; hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology. Geological society of America bulletin, 1945. 56(3): p. 275-370.
Melton, M. A., An analysis of the relations among elements of climate, surface properties, and geomorphology. 1957, Columbia Univ New York.
Miller, V. C., Quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch Mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee. Technical report (Columbia University. Department of Geology); no. 3, 1953.
Schumm, S. A., Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geological society of America bulletin, 1956. 67(5): p. 597-646.
Strahler, A. N., Statistical analysis in geomorphic research. The Journal of Geology, 1954. 62(1): p. 1-25.
Strahler, A. N., Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 1957. 38(6): p. 913-920.
Farhan, Y., Morphometric Assessment of Wadi Wala Watershed, Southern Jordan Using ASTER (DEM) and GIS. Journal of Geographic Information System, 2017. 9(02): p. 158.
Fenta, A. A., Yasuda, H., Shimizu, K., Haregeweyn, N. and Woldearegay, K., Quantitative analysis and implications of drainage morphometry of the Agula watershed in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia. Applied Water Science, 2017. 7(7): p. 3825-3840.
Pareta, K. and U. Pareta, Quantitative morphometric analysis of a watershed of Yamuna basin, India using ASTER (DEM) data and GIS. International journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2011. 2(1): p. 248.
Rahaman, M. F., Jahan, C. S., Arefin, R. and Mazumder, Q. H., Morphometric Analysis of Major Watersheds in Barind Tract, Bangladesh: A Remote Sensing and GIS-Based Approach for Water Resource Management. Hydrology, 2018. 5(6): p. 86.
Waikar, M. and A. P. Nilawar, Morphometric analysis of a drainage basin using geographical information system: a case study. International journal of multidisciplinary and current research, 2014. 2: p. 179-184.
Gebre, T., Kibru, T., Tesfaye, S. and Taye, G., Analysis of watershed attributes for water resources management using GIS: The case of Chelekot micro-watershed, Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Geographic Information System, 2015. 7(02): p. 177.
Panhalkar, S., S. Mali, and C. Pawar, Morphometric analysis and watershed development prioritization of Hiranyakeshi Basin in Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2012. 3(1): p. 525-534.
Ratnam, K. N., Srivastava, Y., Rao, V. V., Amminedu, E. and Murthy, K., Check dam positioning by prioritization of micro-watersheds using SYI model and morphometric analysis—remote sensing and GIS perspective. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 2005. 33(1): p. 25.
Strahler, A. N., Dynamic basis of geomorphology. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1952. 63(9): p. 923-938.
Suma, B. and C. Srinivasa, A Study on Morphometric Parameter of a Watershed for Sustainable Water Conservation. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 2017. 8(9).
Scheidegger, A. E., Hydrogeomorphology. Journal of Hydrology, 1973. 20(3): p. 193-215.
Strahler, A. N., Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1952. 63(11): p. 1117-1142.
Strahler, A., Revisions of Horton’s quantitative factors in erosional terrain. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 1953. 34: p. 345.
Sukristiyanti, S., R. Maria, and H. Lestiana. Watershed-based Morphometric Analysis: A Review. in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2017: IOP Publishing.
Tolessa, G. A. and P. J. Rao, Watershed Development Prioritization of Tandava River Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India-GIS Approach. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2013. 2(2): p. 12-20.
Browse journals by subject