Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Page: 9-15
Evaluation of Soil Contamination in Mining Areas of Rwanda
Hubert Hirwa, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda
François Xavier Nshimiyimana, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda; Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC) Limited, Kigali, Rwanda
Emmanuel Ngendahayo, Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC) Limited, Kigali, Rwanda
Beatha Akimpaye, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda
Lamek Nahayo, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda
Olivier Militery Ngamata, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda
Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera, Department of Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Kigali, Rwanda
Received: Dec. 28, 2018;       Accepted: Jan. 24, 2019;       Published: Feb. 19, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20190501.12      View  39      Downloads  40
Abstract
Soil serves as a great geochemical reservoir for contaminants as well as a natural buffer for transportation of chemical materials and elements in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. This study aimed at evaluating the physical and chemical parameters of soil and understanding the features of the pollution in Gifurwe mining area, Burera District of Rwanda. The soil samples were randomly collected in seven locations of the study area. The soil samples were analyzed for selected physico-chemical parameters: pH values, Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb) concentrations using standard analytical techniques. The contamination factors and pollution load indices were calculated. The pH values of soil ranged between 4.2 and 8.2. The results showed that the As concentrations increase up to 531 mgkg-1 downstream of the tailings dam (farm fields) which is extremely high above the maximum concentration levels allowed by Canadian Standards (12 mgkg-1) for industrial zones. The results also revealed that the mean concentrations of Cr and Pb in soil samples exceed the recommended level by Germany Soil Regulation (50 mgkg-1 and 25 mgkg-1 respectively). The analysis concluded that the soil at Gifurwe mining site is strongly polluted by Arsenic and moderately polluted by Chromium and Lead. Hence, the downstream farmland of Gifurwe is declared as a contaminated site and prevented from other land use. Therefore, sustainable environmental management and contamination control strategies in Gifurwe mining areas are highly recommended.
Keywords
Burera, Contamination Factor, Gifurwe, Mining Activities, Pollution Load Index
To cite this article
Hubert Hirwa, François Xavier Nshimiyimana, Emmanuel Ngendahayo, Beatha Akimpaye, Lamek Nahayo, Olivier Militery Ngamata, Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera, Evaluation of Soil Contamination in Mining Areas of Rwanda, American Journal of Water Science and Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 9-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20190501.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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