Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2020, Page: 31-38
Economic Modeling of Water Need Determination in Lebanon: Implication for Lebanon’s Agriculture
Bassam Hamdar, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, American University of Science and Technology, Beirut, Lebanon
Abbas Hamdan, Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program, Faculty of Business and Economics, American University of Science and Technology, Beirut, Lebanon
Received: Sep. 26, 2019;       Accepted: Jan. 31, 2020;       Published: Feb. 11, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20200601.14      View  15      Downloads  16
Abstract
The Arabian orient from the end of World War II on has been boiling with conflicts, the underlying reason ever since, natural resources. The vassal states created by the French and the British after their victory in the Great War had their borders drawn on the premise of distributing this wealth. However; priorities in the region are starting to shift. With the rising prices, diminishing reserves of oil and the discovery of larger deposits in other regions of the world, the dependence on solar and renewable energy sources is gaining an equivalent strategic importance, water is becoming a major player in the region’s politics, and it is the new strategic asset. Whether in energy production or agriculture, water, is a more suitable substitute to produce electricity at lower costs, a perfect substitute to oil and gas, and safer than nuclear energy. This paper aims at revealing the wasted wealth of water that Lebanon has thirsty neighbors look upon to have. Lebanon is a small piece of land, which God almighty has blessed with annual rain that averages between 8 to 10 billion m3, a figure that can easily classify as a strategic asset. The regions` limited fresh water resources will determine the future political alliances and will possess the key to trigger wars. This paper also demonstrates how the increase in agricultural production would lead to an increase in water needed for irrigation that varies according to the nature of the crops considered by this study i.e., Wheat, Veggies, Citrus, and Apples. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method was utilized to determine the needed water per crop per ton. A regression model with four independent variables was used to cover Wheat, Veggies, Citrus, and Apples, along with one dependent variable, the level of water needed. The findings indicated that for every ton of wheat produced 14 MCM of water is needed, and for every ton of veggies produced 0.002 MCM of water is needed, moreover, for every ton of citrus produced 0.006 MCM of water is needed, and finally, for every ton of apple produced 0.035 MCM of water is needed.
Keywords
Lebanon, Water Resources, OLS Method, Needed Water Per Crop. Agriculture
To cite this article
Bassam Hamdar, Abbas Hamdan, Economic Modeling of Water Need Determination in Lebanon: Implication for Lebanon’s Agriculture, American Journal of Water Science and Engineering. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2020, pp. 31-38. doi: 10.11648/j.ajwse.20200601.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
History of Ancient Arabia before the rise of Islam and the Caliphate. (n. d.). Retrieved June 08, 2018, from https://www.timemaps.com/encyclopedia/history-of-arabia/.
[2]
Byblos, Well (2). (n. d.). Retrieved June 08, 2018, from https://www.livius.org/pictures/lebanon/jubayl-byblos/byblos-well/byblos-well-2/.
[3]
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). (2017). World population Report. Retrieved June 09, 2018, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-population-prospects-2017.html.
[4]
Water in Lebanon Strategic Management data National assessment Matrix (2012). UNESCWA. Retrieved October 29, 2018 from https://unstats.un.org/unsd/envaccounting/workshops/Beirut2012/Beirut2012-11.PDF.
[5]
Nasser, C. Beydoun (2002, September 20). Country has right to Wazzani water. The Daily Star. Retrieved October 16, 2018, from http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2002/Sep-20/19161-beydoun-country-has-right-to-wazzani-water.ashx.
[6]
Al Farawati, R., Al Maradni, A., Basaham, A., & El Sayed, M. (2008). Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater used for the Irrigation of Green Areas in Jeddah: 1 – Chemical Characteristics. Retrieved June 09, 2018, from https://www.kau.edu.sa/Files/320/Researches/51959_22091.pdfIbrahim Abd El Al (1959). Retrieved June 09, 2018, from https://www.ibrahimabdelal.org/news.html.
[7]
Daou, R., & Mikhael, M. (2017, August 25). Lebanon’s Paradox: Water is Abundant yet Scarce (Rep.). Retrieved December 14, 2018, from http://blog.blominvestbank.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Lebanon’s-Paradox-Water-is-Abundant-yet-Scarce.pdf.
[8]
Killgore, A. I. (2006, September/October). For Israel, Southern Lebanon Means the Litani River. Retrieved October 18, 2018, from https://www.wrmea.org/006-september-october/for-israel-southern-lebanon-means-the-litani-river.html.
[9]
Abed El Al, I. (1959). The Litany Project. Ministry of Energy and Water (MOEW), Beirut- Lebanon.
[10]
Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Lebanon. (2014). Retrieved June 12, 2018, from ttp://www.lb.undp.org/content/dam/lebanon/docs/Energy and Environment/Publications/Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Lebanon.pdf.
[11]
Shlomi Dinar and Ariel Dinar on Recent Developments in the Literature on Conflict Negotiation and Cooperation over Shared International Fresh Waters. (2003). Natural Resources Journal, 43 (4), 1217-1287. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24888900.
[12]
Fisk, R. (2018, June 08). Lebanon's mountains are being wiped from the map – but does anyone care? Retrieved October 29, 2018, from https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/lebanon-mountains-environmental-destruction-quarrying-construction-industry-beirut-why-a8388006.html.
[13]
Houri, A., & El Jeblawi, S. (2007). Water quality assessment of Lebanese coastal rivers during dry season and pollution load into the Mediterranean Sea. Retrieved October 26, 2018, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c2e4/63009f9043d28cc9067423aab2e9cacafed8.pdf.
[14]
Water Conservation Tips. (n.d.). Retrieved October 07, 2018 from https://www.nwc.com.sa/English/Community-and-Environment/Water-value/Water-Conservation-Tips/Pages/default.aspx.
[15]
H. Stock and M. W. Watson, Introduction to Econometrics (3rd. edition), Addison-Wesley, 2017.
[16]
Trochim, W. M., & Donnelly, J. P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base (3rd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog.
[17]
Gravetter, F., & Wallnau, L. (2014). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
[18]
Bock, T. (2019). What is a correlation matrix. Displayer. Retrieved September 25, 2019 from https://www.displayr.com›what-is-a-correlation-matrix.
[19]
Hamdar, Bassam, Khaled Hamdan, and Hala Kinawi (2017). “The Economic Implications of Enforcing the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in the Arab Region” International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management ((IJECM), vol 5, No. 7, July 15.
[20]
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: SAGE.
Browse journals by subject